The MKAD, the 109 km Moscow ring road, forms the physical and mental border of the city. Over the years, this border road transformed from an instrument for traffic circulation into a heavily congested destination in itself. Since the collapse of the USSR, many car services, retailers, mega malls and leisure centers appeared along the MKAD. A post-Soviet border city has been arising here and is expected to grow further. The MKAD City project investigates this border city, its image and the culture that the car has created around it: a multitude of people, places and landscapes, all connected through the ring road. The project concludes with a strategic vision on how the MKAD border city can become a more sensible space for the future development of Moscow. Download PDF
Cover image: Leszek Golubinski /