This paper offers an analysis of both the private and public sides of protest in the context of Russian history and Moscow in particular, trying to grasp the spatial angle of protest and follow how it grows from a personal thought into massive demonstrations. It introduces different spatial typologies for different levels of protest and finds a missing one: a space for public rational conversation, which, according to Lindsay, could preserve the modernist heritage of abandoned socialist architecture by bringing back its essential meaning: the avant-garde space for revolution and progress. Download PDF
Cover image: Michael Kappel /